In exchange, the miner is rewarded with this currency. As the miners work, new bitcoins are created and enter the market, but always at a fixed pace. The price of a bitcoin varies depending on demand. When it increases, the price goes up, and vice versa. To check the current price of a bitcoin, there are many calculators on the network that report this data in real time. Bitcoins are created at a steady pace until 21 million are reached, a figure that is estimated to be reached in Today there are more than 11 million in circulation.
One should bear in mind that being a digital currency, it is entirely divisible, so we often hear about BTMs or mBTC equivalent to 0. So now you know what it is, where it comes from and how much a bitcoin is worth. If you also want to find out how to use them, keep reading. The function of these wallets is to certify the validity of this currency. As we mentioned, a bitcoin has a public and a private key.
Any transaction is based on the exchange of public addresses that are instant and can be monitored in real time without the need for intermediaries. Bitcoin and the blockchain protocol have achieved a system that enables the exchange of value between two parties unknown to each other in a swift and effective way, without the need for intermediaries.
Despite its immaturity and the many challenges it involves, the financial industry has set its sights on this technology, that can offer a great opportunity for generating new banking services that are more agile, less expensive and more favorable for its customers. In her opinion, there are only two things preventing banks from beginning to offer Bitcoin services: regulation and real customer demand.
What are you looking for? Press Enter Predictive Search. Close panel Close panel Close panel. Shareholders and investors. BBVA in the World. BBVA Results. When that happens it is said that the transaction has been mined at a depth of 1 block. With each subsequent block that is found, the number of blocks deep is increased by one.
IT : Momento in cui il blocco e tutte le transazioni incluse in esso sono accettate dalla rete come valide ed entrano a far parte della blockchain. Il blocco in formazione deve da questo momento avere il numero successivo a quello confermato. The consensus rules are the specific set of rules that all Bitcoin full nodes will unfailingly enforce when considering the validity of a block and its transactions.
For example, the Bitcoin consensus rules require that blocks only create a certain number of bitcoins. IT : Quando svariati nodi hanno tutti gli stessi blocchi nella loro blockchain validata localmente. Developers regularly create intentional consensus forks by modifying Bitcoin client software.
These changes upgrade or constrain the way that Bitcoin works — temporarily or permanently. IT : Biforcazione della rete dovuto a un problema nel consensus. IT : Criptovaluta digitale. It is a finite directed graph with no directed cycles. That is, it consists of finitely many vertices and edges, with each edge directed from one vertex to another, such that there is no way to start at any vertex v and follow a consistently-directed sequence of edges that eventually loops back to vagain.
DDOS attack is a type of DOS attack that occurs when multiple systems flood the bandwidth or resources of a targeted system, usually one or more web servers. A botnet is a network of zombie computers programmed to receive commands without the owners' knowledge. The major advantages to an attacker of using a distributed denial-of-service attack are that multiple machines can generate more attack traffic than one machine, multiple attack machines are harder to turn off than one attack machine, and that the behavior of each attack machine can be stealthier, making it harder to track and shut down.
These attacker advantages cause challenges for defense mechanisms. For example, merely purchasing more incoming bandwidth than the current volume of the attack might not help, because the attacker might be able to simply add more attack machines. This after all will end up completely crashing a website for periods of time.
IT : Funzionamento identico al DOS ma realizzato utilizzando numerose macchine attaccanti che insieme costituiscono una botnet. Without a central authority or controlling party. Bitcoin is a decentralized network since no company, government, or individual is in control of it. Tutte le transazioni sono rese pubbliche, con la presenza di un unico registro storico ed informatico condiviso tra gli utenti.
A distributed network is designed so that there is no central server or entity that others must connect to. Instead, network participants connect directly to each other. Bitcoin is a distributed network. IT : Rete Distribuita. In computing, a denial-of-service DoS attack is an attempt to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users, such as to temporarily or indefinitely interrupt or suspend services of a host connected to the Internet.
Double-spending is a failure mode of digital cash schemes, when it is possible to spend a single digital token twice. Since, unlike physical token money such as coins, electronic files can be duplicated, and hence the act of spending a digital coin does not remove its data from the ownership of the original holder, some other means are needed to prevent double-spending. Il mining di Bitcoin ed il block chain esistono per creare un consenso sulla rete, per decidere quale delle due transazioni sia considerata valida.
IT : BIP - Limite definito in modo dinamico normalmente riferito al limite della dimensione del blocco sulla base del volume di transazioni. With bitcoin, the data that is signed is the transaction that transfers ownership. IT : Algoritmo di firma digitale basato sulla curva ellittica. Ethereum is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts: applications that run exactly as programmed without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third party interference.
The Finney attack is a fraudulent double-spend that requires the participation of a miner once a block has been mined. The risk of a Finney attack cannot be eliminated regardless of the precautions taken by the merchant, but the participation of a miner is required and a specific sequence of events must occur.
Quando il merchant eroga il bene o il servizio il miner trasmette il proprio blocco con la transazione fraudolenta. A flood attack is the process of sending thousands of transactions to "flood" the mempool, filling new blocks to the maximum size of 1MB, and subsequently delaying other transactions.
It is easy to send transactions to yourself repeatedly, but it is made expensive with transaction fees. IT : Attacco basato sulla produzione di transazioni con un altissimo numero di outputs di importo irrilevante verso un destinatario unico. Segwit rende questo attacco quasi ineffettivo. Any computer that connects to the Bitcoin network is called a node. Nodes that fully enforce all of the rules of Bitcoin are called full nodes.
Most nodes on the network are lightweight nodes instead of full nodes, but full nodes form the backbone of the network. IT : Biforkazione generalmente riferito alla blockchain oppure allo sfruttamento e modifica di codice open source esistente che genera un altro software. Mantiene una copia della blockchain. Fungibility refers to the concept that every unit or subunit remains equivalent and identical to any other unit or subunit. It is the property of a good or commodity whose individual units are capable ofmutual substitution.
The unit symbol for the gigabyte is GB. Corrisponde a un miliardo di bytes. The Great Firewall of China, commonly known as "wall" is used by international, including Chinese, media to refer to legislation and projects initiated by the Chinese government which is controlled by the Communist Party of China, CPC that attempt to regulate the Internet in Mainland China.
Any alteration to bitcoin which changes the block structure including block hash , difficulty rules, or increases the set of valid transactions is a hardfork. IT : Biforkazione nella blockchain provocata da un allargamento delle regole del consenso. A hash algorithm turns an arbitrarily-large amount of data into a fixed-length hash. The same hash will always result from the same data, but modifying the data by even one bit will completely change the hash.
Like all computer data, hashes are large numbers, and are usually written as hexadecimal. BitCoin uses the SHA hash algorithm to generate verifiably "random" numbers in a way that requires a predictable amount of CPU effort. Generating a SHA hash with a value less than the current target solves a block and wins you some coins. Una funzione di hash ha due caratteristiche importanti. A cryptographic hash function is a mathematical algorithm that maps data of arbitrary size to a bit string of a fixed size a hash function which is designed to also be one-way function, that is, a function which is infeasible to invert.
The only way to recreate the input data from an ideal cryptographic hash function's output is to try a large number of possible inputs to see if they produce a match. Bruce Schneier has called one-way hash functions "the workhorses of modern cryptography".
The input data is often called the message, and the output the hash value or hash is often called the message digest or simply the digest. IT : Funzione Hash. Invertible Bloom Lookup Tables IBLTs are a new described in data structure that can be used to solve the set reconciliation problem. Then transmit that squashed data to a peer, who mostly knows what data you are sending them, but might be missing a few transactions or might be expecting that you put a few transaction in your block that you actually didn't.
IT : Metodo per trovare le differenze tra due set di dati residenti su due hosts senza trasferire l'intero set di dati da un host all'altro. The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. The unit symbol for the kilobyte is kB. In this context, the symbols K and KB are often used when bytes are meant. Corrisponde a un migliaio di bytes. Lightning Network is a proposed implementation of Hash Time Locked Contracts HTLCs with bi-directional payment channels which allows payments to be securely routed across multiple peer-to-peer payment channels.
This allows the formation of a network where any peer on the network can pay any other peer even if they don't directly have a channel open between each other. Litecoin is a peer-to-peer Internet currency that enables instant, near-zero cost payments to anyone in the world. Litecoin is an open source, global payment network that is fully decentralized without any central authorities. Mathematics secures the network and empowers individuals to control their own finances.
Litecoin features faster transaction confirmation times and improved storage efficiency than the leading math-based currency. IT : Cryptovaluta alternativa. The locktime indicates the earliest time a transaction can be added to the block chain. Locktime allows signers to create time-locked transactions which will only become valid in the future, giving the signers a chance to change their minds.
The original and main network for Bitcoin transactions, where satoshis have real economic value. IT : Rete principale del Bitcoin. This BIP is a proposal to redefine the semantics used in determining a time-locked transaction's eligibility for inclusion in a block. The median of the last 11 blocks is used instead of the block's timestamp, ensuring that it increases monotonically with each block.
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. The megabyte is commonly used to measure either bytes or bytes. The interpretation of using base originated as a compromise technical jargon for the byte multiples that needed to be expressed by the powers of 2 but lacked a convenient name.
Corrisponde a un milione di bytes. The bitcoin Mempool memory pool is a collection of all transaction data in a block that have been verified by bitcoin nodes, but are not yet confirmed. IT : Area di memoria riservata dai full nodes alle transazioni tasmesse in rete ma non ancora confermate. The act of using work done on one blockchain on more than one chain, using Auxiliary POW. IT : Metodo di certificazione di una catena alternativa che consiste nello scrivere il merkle root di un blocco di transazioni della catena nella coinbase di un blocco della blockchain di bitcoin.
A branch connecting one or more leaves to the root. A Merkle hash tree is a tree of hashes in which the leaves are hashes of data blocks in, for instance, a file or set of files. The root node of a merkle tree, a descendant of all the hashed pairs in the tree. Block headers must include a validmerkle root descended from all transactions in that block. IT : Nodo di vertice di un merkle tree. A tree constructed by hashing paired data the leaves , then pairing and hashing the results until a single hash remains, the merkle root.
In Bitcoin, the leaves are almost always transactions from a single block. A micropayment is a financial transaction involving a very small sum of money and usually one that occurs online. A number of micropayment systems were proposed and developed in the mid-to-late s, all of which were ultimately unsuccessful.
A second generation of micropayment systems emerged in the s. There are a number of different definitions of what constitutes a micropayment. Micropayment channels allow a customer to pay a merchant as little as a single satoshi, and do this time and time again over the course of hours or days. No matter how many payments the customer makesand they can make millionsonly two transactions appear on the Bitcoin blockchain and only two transaction fees are paid to miners.
IT : fornisce servizi di elaborazione di micro-pagamento per i commercianti che desiderano accettare pagamenti bitcoin. Mining is a record-keeping service. Miners keep the blockchain consistent, complete, and unalterable by repeatedly verifying and collecting newly broadcast transactions into a new group of transactions called a block.
Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, using the SHA hashing algorithm, which "chains" it to the previous block thus giving the blockchain its name. IT : Per mining si intende il processo che fa eseguire all'hardware del computer calcoli matematici al fine di confermare le transazioni ed aumentare la sicurezza della rete Bitcoin.
Come ricompensa per il loro servizio, i miner minatori di Bitcoin possono incassare delle commissioni sulle transazioni che confermano insieme ai nuovi bitcoin appena creati. A person, a software or a hardware that performs mining.
IT : Operatore della rete Bitcoin che certifica le transazioni costruendo i blocchi di queste. In the context of cryptocurrency mining, a mining pool is the pooling of resources by miners, who share their processing power over a network, to split the reward equally, according to the amount of work they contributed to solving a block. A "share" is awarded to members of the mining pool who present a valid proof of work that their miner solved.
Mining in pools began when the difficulty for mining increased to the point where it could take years for slower miners to generate a block. The solution to this problem was for miners to pool their resources so they could generate blocks more quickly and therefore receive a portion of the block reward on a consistent basis, rather than randomly once every few years.
IT : Una raccolta di miners che mina insieme un blocco, e poi divide il premio tra di loro, in caso di vincita. When a Bitcoin miner finds a block, it receives newly minted bitcoins known as the "Block Reward". The reward aka subsidy is halved every four years and is responsible for bitcoin'scontrolled supply. IT : Premio per il miner che risolve il blocco che la rete riconosce come valido.
IT : Consenso basato sulla Proof of work. Latency is a time delay between the cause and the effect of some physical change in the system being observed. Latency is physically a consequence of the limited velocity with which any physical interaction can propagate. This velocity is always lower than or equal to the speed of light.
Therefore, every physical system that has spatial dimensions different from zero will experience some sort of latency, regardless of the nature of stimulation that it has been exposed to. IT : E' la misura del ritardo in una rete. Part of a transaction which indicates the earliest time or earliest block when that transaction may be added to the block chain.
IT : Rende la transazione non trasmissibile per un determinato lasso di tempo o per un determinato numero di blocchi. In cryptography, a nonce is an arbitrary number that may only be used once. It is similar in spirit to anonce word, hence the name.
It is often a random or pseudo-random number issued in anauthentication protocol to ensure that old communications cannot be reused in replay attacks. They can also be useful as initialization vectors and in cryptographic hash function. IT : Un numero nonce tale per cui l'hash SHA di un insieme di dati rappresentante il blocco sia inferiore a una soglia data.
It is a hash of the transaction without the input scripts. These are the areas covered by the standard payment methods and they cannot be modified without invalidating the transaction. A number intended to allow unconfirmed time-locked transactions to be updated before being finalized; not currently used except to disable locktime in a transaction. IT : Campo di un input di transazione. An off-chain transaction is the movement of value outside of the block chain.
An on-chain transaction - usually referred to as simply 'a transaction' - modifies the blockchain and depends on the blockchain to determine its validity an off-chain transaction relies on other methods to record and validate the transaction. An orphan block rate that doesn't have a known parent in the longest block chain.
IT : Tasso di blocchi orfani su quelli confermati in modo definitivo. A block which is not a part of the valid blockchain, but which was instead part of a fork that was discarded. A type of network where participants communicate directly with each other rather than through a centralized server. The Bitcoin network is peer to peer. IT : Per peer to peer si intendono i sistemi che funzionano come un collettivo organizzato permettendo ad ogni individuo di interagire direttamente con gli altri.
A bit number used in ECDSA algorithm to create transaction signatures in order to prove ownership of certain amount of bitcoins. Can also be used in arbitrary elliptic curve arithmetic operations. Private keys are stored within wallet applications and are usually encrypted with a pass phrase. La chiave privata non deve essere rivelata ad altri in quanto ti permette di utilizzare i fondi dal tuo portafoglio Bitcoin.
Proof-of-stake PoS is a method by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus. While the proof-of-work PoW method asks users to repeatedly run hashing algorithms or other client puzzles to validate electronic transactions, proof-of-stake asks users to prove ownership of a certain amount of currency their "stake" in the currency.
Peercoin was the first cryptocurrency to launch using proof-of-Stake. Ethereum has planned a hard fork transition from PoW to PoS consensus. In order to be accepted by the rest of the network, a new block must contain a so-called proof-of-work. This proof is easy for any node in the network to verify, but extremely time-consuming to generate, as for a secure cryptographic hash, miners must try many different nonce values usually the sequence of tested values is 0, 1, 2, 3, … before meeting the difficulty target.
IT : Una porzione di dati che richiede un significativo sforzo computazionale, per essere trovata. Network propagation is the number of nodes computers running a bitcoin client that have heard about your transaction. Confirmations is how many blocks have included your transaction and how many blocks have linked onto that block. IT : Propagazione delle transazioni o dei blocchi attraverso i full nodes. A pseudorandom process is a process that appears to be random but is not.
Pseudorandom sequences typically exhibit statistical randomness while being generated by an entirely deterministic causal process. Such a process is easier to produce than a genuinely random one, and has the benefit that it can be used again and again to produce exactly the same numbers - useful for testing and fixing software. The public portion of a keypair which can be used to verify signatures made with the private portion of the keypair. Allows a transaction to be time-locked, preventing its use in a new transaction until a relative time change is achieved.
This system a acts as a fallback in the case that the public Bitcoin network encounters issues and b decreases block propagation times between miners. IT : Trasmissione delle transazioni o dei blocchi nella rete. The term "blockchain reorganization" is used to refer to the situation where a client discovers a new difficultywise-longest well-formed blockchain which excludes one or more blocks that the client previously thought were part of the difficultywise-longest well-formed blockchain.
These excluded blocks become orphans. IT : Processo di scelta tra due catene alternative e di eliminazione della catena perdente i cui blocchi sono detti orfani. Many nodes today will not replace any transaction in their mempool with another transaction that spends the same inputs, making it difficult for spenders to adjust their previously-sent transactions to deal with unexpected confirmation delays or to perform other useful replacements.
The opt-in full Replace-by-Fee opt-in full-RBF signaling policy allows spenders to add a signal to a transaction indicating that they want to be able to replace that transaction in the future. It is used in the Bitcoin standard. The compression function is made up of 80 stages made up of 5 blocks that run 16 times each. This pattern runs twice with the results being combined at the bottom using modulo 32 addition.
IT : Funzione di hashing.
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